RTS Pakistan

Job Analysis

It is the process to hire a person and determine the duties and skill requirements for a particular job position.

Job Description

It is one product of job analysis, a list of a job’s duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships, working conditions, and supervisory responsibilities.

Job Specifications

It is another product of job analysis, a list of a job’s “human requirements,” that is, the requisite education, skills, personality, and so on.

Some types of information need to collect to conduct a job analysis, these include:

  • Work activities (e.g. cleaning etc.)
  • Human behaviors (e.g. deciding, writing, etc.)
  • Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids
  • Performance standards (To evaluate later)
  • Job context (physical conditions, schedules)
  • Human requirements

Usage of Job Analysis Information

The information collected during job analysis can be used for multiple purposes such as:

  • Recruitment and Selection
  • Compensation
  • Performance Appraisal
  • Training
  • Discovering Unassigned Duties

The information can be used in below-mentioned steps:

  1. Decide how you’ll use the information.
  2. Review relevant background information.
  3. Select representative positions.
  4. Actually analyze the job.
  5. Verify the job analysis information.
  6. Develop a job description and job

Organization chart

Organization Chart is a flowchart that displays the organization-wide distribution of work, with titles of each position and interconnecting lines that show reporting and communication framework.

Process chart

Process Chart is a work flow chart that shows the flow of inputs to and outputs from a particular job.

Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information:

1. Interview

  • Information sources
    • Individual employees
    • Groups of employees
    • Supervisors with knowledge of the job
  • Advantages
    • The quick, direct way to find overlooked information.
  • Disadvantages
    • Distorted information
  • Interview formats
    • Structured (Checklist)
    • Unstructured
  • Guidelines for Interview
    • Supervisor and the job analyst should work together to recognize the workers who know the job best.
    • Establish a quick connection with the interviewee.
    • Follow a structured guide or checklist, one that lists open-ended questions and provides space for answers.
    • Ask the worker to list his or her duties in order of importance and frequency of occurrence.
    • Review and verify the data after completing the interview.

2. Questionnaires

  • Information source
    • Questionnaires shall be filled out by employees to describe their job-related duties and responsibilities.
  • Questionnaire formats
    • Structured checklists
    • Opened-ended questions
  • Advantages
    • Fast and proficient way to gather information from large numbers of employees
  • Disadvantages
    • Expense and time used up in preparing and testing the questionnaire

3. Observation

  • Information source
    • Observing and noting the physical activities of employees during them go about their jobs.
  • Advantages
    • Provides first-hand information
    • Reduces distortion of information
  • Disadvantages
    • Time-consuming
    • Difficulty in capturing the entire job cycle
    • Of little use, if a job involves a high level of mental activity

4.Participant Diary/Logs

  • Information source
    • Workers keep a sequential diary/ log of what they do and the time spent in each activity.
  • Advantages
    • Generates a more comprehensive picture of the job
    • Employee involvement
  • Disadvantages
    • Misrepresentation of information
    • Depends upon employees to perfectly recall their activities

Job Analysis Quantitative Techniques

  • Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)
    • A questionnaire used to collect quantifiable data concerning the duties and responsibilities of various jobs.
    • The PAQ comprises six divisions, with each division containing numerous job elements. The divisions include:
      Information input – Where and how does the worker get information to do the job?

Mental process –What levels of reasoning are necessary for the job?

Work output –What physical activities are performed?

Relationships with others –What kind of relationships are required to perform the job?

Job context –What working conditions and social contexts are involved?

Other –What else is relevant to the job?

  • Department Of Labor (DOL)
    • A standardized procedure by which different jobs can be quantitatively rated, classified, and compared.
  • Functional job analysis
    • FJA takes into account the magnitude to which instructions, reasoning, judgment, mathematical and verbal ability are compulsory for performing job tasks.

Also, visitHuman Resource Management – Part 1

Also, visitHuman Resource Management – Part 2

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